Comparison of the bone growth in rats after short-term exposure to high fluoride and aluminum and long-term exposure to low fluoride and aluminum
Received:September 12, 2018  
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DOI:10. 3969 / j.issn.1005-4847. 2019. 03. 014
KeyWord:fluoride; aluminum; exposure time; bone metabolism; bone formation; tibia; rat
黄连芳 广东医科大学广东天然药物研究与开发重点实验室,广东湛江
陈艳 广东医科大学广东天然药物研究与开发重点实验室,广东湛江
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      Objective To investigate the effects of different exposure periods of intake of high- or low-dosefluoride combined with aluminum exposure on longitudinal bone growth and bone metabolism in rats. Methods Forty-eight2-month-old Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into a vehicle control group and two groups exposed to fluoridecombined with aluminum (0. 1 mg/ kg) as follows: low-dose fluoride (5 mg/ kg) + aluminum, and high-dose fluoride (30mg/ kg) + aluminum. In these two groups, the durations of intervention were 45 and 90 days, respectively. At the end ofthe experiment, all proximal tibias were harvested and processed for bone histomorphometric analysis of both the epiphysealgrowth plate and epiphyseal trabeculae. Results Compared with the findings in the control group, increased growth platethickness accompanied by a neat arrangement and normal morphology of chondrocytes was observed at 45 days in bothtreatment groups. In addition, hypertrophy and retention of chondrocytes was observed at 90 days in the high-fluoride +aluminum group. Percent mineralized surface, bone formation rate, and osteoblast circumference were increased in the lowdosage fluoride + aluminum group at both 45 and 90 days, while bone resorption perimeter was increased in secondarytrabeculae at day 90 compared with the age-matched controls. Bone formation and bone resorption parameters mentionedabove were all elevated in the high-fluoride + aluminum group at day 45, but were reduced with bone volume loss in thesame group at day 90. Conclusions Short-term exposure to high-fluoride + aluminum stimulates the growth of platecartilage, while long-term exposure leads to cartilage osteogenesis. Short-term exposure to low-fluoride + aluminum onlyincreased secondary bone formation, whereas both long-term exposure to low-fluoride/ aluminum and short-term exposure tohigh-fluoride/ aluminum can stimulate bone formation along with bone resorption in secondary trabeculae; in contrast, longterm high-fluoride + aluminum exposure has an inhibitory effect on the longitudinal bone formation.
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